Sex Crime Investigations: The Complete Investigator’s Handbook: The Complete Investigators Handbook

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This rapid rise in the use of ICT for criminal purposes necessitated Labs and slabs: television crime drama and the quest for forensic realism. This essay examines how crime dramas produced during, and since, the s became marked by the quest for ' forensic realism'. In particular, the essay traces a landmark shift in the development of forensic realism in the form of the ground-breaking British police drama Prime Suspect in It is argued that this television series not only represents a turning point in television history, but that it also constitutes a key text in the broader cultural turn towards forensic fascination.

Prime Suspect vividly revealed and displayed corpses, crime scenes and post-mortem photos in an unprecedented fashion for television. This essay shows how in the process it established new standards and expectations regarding the aesthetics and thematic content of the perceived 'realism' of the crime genre.

Through an analysis of the reception and impact of Prime Suspect the essay also demonstrates how crime drama's increasing fascination with forensic realism has driven debate over just what kinds of stories and images constitute acceptable or appropriate subject matter for popular entertainment, and for the medium of television itself.

Published by Elsevier Ltd. On the application of semantic technologies to the domain of forensic investigations in financial crimes. In daily police practice, forensic investigation of criminal cases is mainly based on manual work and the experience of individual forensic experts, using basic storage and data processing technologies. However, an individual criminal case does not only consist of the actual offence, but also of a variety of different aspects involved.

For example, in order to solve a financial criminal case, an investigator has to find interrelations between different case entities as well as to other cases. The required information about these different entities is often stored in various databases and mostly requires to be manually requested and processed by forensic investigators. We propose the application of semantic technologies to the domain of forensic investigations at the example of financial crimes. Such combination allows for modelling specific case entities and their interrelations within and between cases.

As a result, an explorative search of connections between case entities in the scope of an investigation as well as an automated derivation of conclusions from an established fact base is enabled. The proposed model is presented in the form of a crime field ontology, based on different types of knowledge obtained from three individual sources: open source intelligence, forensic investigators and captive interviews of detained criminals.

The modelled crime field ontology is illustrated at two examples using the well known crime type of explosive attack on ATM and the potentially upcoming crime type data theft by NFC crowd skimming. Of these criminal modi operandi, anonymized fictional are modelled, visualized and exploratively searched. Modelled case entities include modi operandi, events, actors, resources, exploited weaknesses as well as flows of money, data and know how. The potential exploration of interrelations between the different case entities of such examples is illustrated in the scope of a fictitious investigation, highlighting the potential of the.

Forensic Science means the application of science to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by the police agencies in a criminal justice system. Forensic Science plays a vital role in the criminal justice system by providing scientifically based information through the analysis of physical evidence.

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It involves the use of multiple disciplines such as physics, chemistry, biology, computer science and engineering for evidence analysis. In this paper I would like to analysis how Laboratory automation and LIMS in forensics. Furthermore, implementation of automated liquid handlers reduces the risk of sample misplacement. A LIMS can efficiently control the sample flow through the laboratory and manage the results of the conducted tests for each sample.

Integration of automated liquid handlers with a LIMS provides the laboratory Implementation of laboratory automation and LIMS in a forensic laboratory enables the laboratory , to standardize sample processing. Automated liquid handlers can increase throughput and eliminate manual repetitive pipetting operations, known to result in occupational injuries to the technical staff Combined, this enables processing of a large number of samples. Selection of the best automated solution for an individual laboratory should be based on user Substance abuse and crime : considerations for a comprehensive forensic assessment.

There is a strong link between drug use and crime , but this relationship is complex. Drug use does not necessarily lead to an increase in crimes , such as theft, rape or assault, even among regular users or addicts. However, in cases of individuals who consume drugs excessively and commit crimes , both factors are linked.

Poverty, personality disorders, social and cultural variables, relationships with other users and previous incarceration or drug use are all factors. These issues play an important role in understanding the risk of crime and drug use. Most addicts should be held liable for most criminal behaviour motivated by addiction, but that addiction can, in some cases, affect one's capacity for self-control over one's actions.

This paper examines the current response of the Spanish Criminal Justice System to various aspects of drug abuse, focusing on court decisions related with the nature and enforcement of drug laws. It also addresses aspects of criminal responsibility for drug abuse and drug-related crimes and suggests legislation on drugs, sentencing alternatives for drug offenses, and drug treatment options.

Expert evidence plays a crucial role in this area in the court. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for Forensic botany as a useful tool in the crime scene: Report of a case. The ubiquitous presence of plant species makes forensic botany useful for many criminal cases. Particularly, bryophytes are useful for forensic investigations because many of them are clonal and largely distributed.

Bryophyte shoots can easily become attached to shoes and clothes and it is possible to be found on footwear, providing links between crime scene and individuals. We report a case of suicide of a young girl happened in Siena, Tuscany, Italia. The cause of traumatic injuries could be ascribed to suicide, to homicide, or to accident. In absence of eyewitnesses who could testify the dynamics of the event, the crime scene investigation was fundamental to clarify the accident. During the scene analysis, some fragments of Tortula muralis Hedw.

(PDF) Section: Blood and Body Fluids Evidence Bibliography | Michael Hochrein -

The fragments were analyzed by a bryologists in order to compare them with the moss present on the stairs that the victim used immediately before the death. The analysis of these bryophytes found at the crime scene allowed to reconstruct the accident. Even if this evidence, of course, is circumstantial, it can be useful in forensic cases, together with the other evidences, to reconstruct the dynamics of events.

We describe a laboratory exercise suitable for an undergraduate biochemistry course in which the polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify a base pair hypervariable region of human mtDNA from a variety of " crime scene" samples e. Amplification is verified via agarose gel electrophoresis and then samples are subjected to cycle sequencing. The article comments, from the perspective of a forensic psychologist, the changes which have been recently provided to the law regulations on sexual crime and the treatment of the sexual crime perpetrators.

It appears that the new law regulations follow the right path, because they create the conditions for holistic and complex solutions in the sexual crime treatment matter. Unfortunately they are still rather incomplete and inconsistent. Their practical implementation is difficult because of the very demanding qualification criteria to the psychotherapy of sexual crime perpetrators, the existence of law criteria to the therapy, the narrow frame of the therapy goals and unclear rules of therapy constraint. Moreover, in Poland there is a lack of complex therapy models of sexual perpetrators, we have little experience in this kind of therapy and there is a deficiency of qualified specialists.

Finally the relationship between the treatment of this kind of criminals in prison conditions and ambulatory therapy conditions isn't very clearly precise. On the other hand, a lot of improvements have been provided, such as: continuing the treatment after leaving prison, not only pharmacological treatment but also psychotherapy, the system of prevention. Despite of the strong attempts to promote the special role of pharmacological treatment of sexual crime perpetrators ,,chemical castration" , the new solutions promote a complex and interdisciplinary approach to this problem.

In this article, the author described the current Polish experience in the therapy of sexual crime perpetrators and listed several rules of preparing the forensic -psychological expertise according to the described problem in context of new legal regulations. Full Text Available A polygraph is an instrument that measures and records physiological changes inside the body. In the absence of a valid physical evidence, polygraphy may be a useful technique to verify truthfulness or detect deception.

The present study was conducted to determine the truthfulness of a suspect in a murder case that was referred to PFSA for a polygraph examination. The stomach contents of the examinee and the hyoid bone of the vicvtim were submitted to the department of toxicology and forensic pathology at the PFSA, respectively. In the present study, integrated zone comparison technique IZCT and forensic assessment interview technique FAINT designed for specific and multi issue testing were used to examine the suspect.

The suspect of this murder case was brought to PFSA for polygraph examination. During the initial interview, the suspect denied any involvement in the said case. However, after complete polygraph examination, the suspect was proven to have been deceptive and later on confessed to police officials. The polygraph examination of the suspect proved him deceptive which was later confirmed by his confession.

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Computer-aided fiber analysis for crime scene forensics. The forensic analysis of fibers is currently completely manual and therefore time consuming. The automation of analysis steps can significantly support forensic experts and reduce the time, required for the investigation. Moreover, a subjective expert belief is extended by objective machine estimation. This work proposes the pattern recognition pipeline containing the digital acquisition of a fiber media, the pre-processing for fiber segmentation, and the extraction of the distinctive characteristics of fibers.

Currently, basic geometrical features like width, height, area of optically dominant fibers are investigated. In order to support the automatic classification of fibers, supervised machine learning algorithms are evaluated. The experimental setup includes a car seat and two pieces clothing of a different fabric.

As preliminary work, acrylic as synthetic and sheep wool as natural fiber are chosen to be classified. While sitting on the seat, a test person leaves textile fibers. The test aims at automatic distinguishing of clothes through the fiber traces gained from the seat with the help of adhesive tape. The digitalization of fiber samples is provided by a contactless chromatic white light sensor. First test results showed, that two optically very different fibers can be properly assigned to their corresponding fiber type.

The best classifier achieves an accuracy of 75 percent correctly classified samples for our suggested features. Nuclear forensics : a comprehensive model action plan for Nuclear Forensics Laboratory in India. Establishment of Nuclear Forensic Laboratory and development of expertise for nuclear investigation under one roof by developing the nuclear data base and laboratory network is need of the hour to ably address the problems of all the law enforcement and nuclear agencies.

The present study provides insight in Nuclear Forensics and focuses on an urgent need for a comprehensive plan to set up Nuclear Forensic Laboratory across India. Forensic botany can provide useful information for pathologists, particularly on crime scene investigation. We report the case of a man who arrived at the hospital and died shortly afterward.

The body showed widespread electrical lesions. The statements of his brother and wife about the incident aroused a large amount of suspicion in the investigators. A crime scene investigation was carried out, along with a botanical morphological survey on small vegetations found on the corpse. An autopsy was also performed. Botanical analysis showed some samples of Xanthium spinosum, thus leading to the discovery of the falsification of the crime scene although the location of the true crime scene remained a mystery.

The botanical analysis, along with circumstantial data and autopsy findings, led to the discovery of the real crime scene and became crucial as part of the legal evidence regarding the falsity of the statements made to investigators. Nuclear forensics assists in responding to any event where nuclear material is found outside of regulatory control; a response plan is presented and a nuclear forensics program is undergoing further development so that smugglers are sufficiently deterred. A forensic science perspective on the role of images in crime investigation and reconstruction.

This article presents a global vision of images in forensic science. The proliferation of perspectives on the use of images throughout criminal investigations and the increasing demand for research on this topic seem to demand a forensic science-based analysis. In this study, the definitions of and concepts related to material traces are revisited and applied to images, and a structured approach is used to persuade the scientific community to extend and improve the use of images as traces in criminal investigations. Current research efforts focus on technical issues and evidence assessment.

This article provides a sound foundation for rationalising and explaining the processes involved in the production of clues from trace images. For example, the mechanisms through which these visual traces become clues of presence or action are described. An extensive literature review of forensic image analysis emphasises the existing guidelines and knowledge available for answering investigative questions who, what, where, when and how. However, complementary developments are still necessary to demystify many aspects of image analysis in forensic science, including how to review and select images or use them to reconstruct an event or assist intelligence efforts.

The hypothetico-deductive reasoning pathway used to discover unknown elements of an event or crime can also help scientists understand the underlying processes involved in their decision making. Research efforts should be directed toward formalising the extraction and combination of clues from images. An appropriate methodology is key to expanding the use of images in forensic science. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Forensic DNA Phenotyping: Predicting human appearance from crime scene material for investigative purposes.

Forensic DNA Phenotyping refers to the prediction of appearance traits of unknown sample donors, or unknown deceased missing persons, directly from biological materials found at the scene. This intelligence application of DNA marks a substantially different forensic use of genetic material rather than that of current DNA profiling presented in the courtroom.

Currently, group-specific pigmentation traits are already predictable from DNA with reasonably high accuracies, while several other externally visible characteristics are under genetic investigation. Notably, and where Forensic DNA Phenotyping shows great promise, this is on a much smaller group of potential suspects, who match the appearance characteristics DNA-predicted from the crime scene stain or from the deceased person's remains.

Provided sufficient funding being made available, future research to better understand the genetic basis of human appearance will expectedly lead to a substantially more detailed description of an unknown person's appearance from DNA, delivering increased value for police investigations in criminal and missing person cases involving unknowns.

We explore the impact of information from ballistics imaging hit reports on the investigation into violent crimes. Ballistics imaging hits link two crimes involving the same firearm by forensically matching tool marks on the fired bullets or cartridge cases. Interview data collected from detectives who received a hit report were used to explore the relationship between the presence of a hit report and outcomes in 65 gun-related violent crime investigations in nine U. Findings indicate hit reports rarely contribute to identification, arrest, charging, or sentencing of suspects, because of delays in producing hit reports.

On average, hit reports were completed This delay forces investigations to proceed without the benefit of information from ballistics analysis. Additionally, hit reports rarely contained detailed information that was immediately useful to investigators. Instead, hit reports required additional research by the investigator to unlock useful information.

Digitized forensics : retaining a link between physical and digital crime scene traces using QR-codes. The digitization of physical traces from crime scenes in forensic investigations in effect creates a digital chain-of-custody and entrains the challenge of creating a link between the two or more representations of the same trace.

In order to be forensically sound, especially the two security aspects of integrity and authenticity need to be maintained at all times. Especially the adherence to the authenticity using technical means proves to be a challenge at the boundary between the physical object and its digital representations.

In this article we propose a new method of linking physical objects with its digital counterparts using two-dimensional bar codes and additional meta-data accompanying the acquired data for integration in the conventional documentation of collection of items of evidence bagging and tagging process.

Using the exemplary chosen QR-code as particular implementation of a bar code and a model of the forensic process, we also supply a means to integrate our suggested approach into forensically sound proceedings as described by Holder et al. We show an exemplary demonstrator of the suggested approach using a smartphone as a mobile device for the verification of the physical trace to extend the chain-of-custody from the physical to the digital domain.

Our evaluation of the demonstrator is performed towards the readability and the verification of its contents. We can read the bar code despite its limited size of 42 x 42 mm and rather large amount of embedded data using various devices. Furthermore, the QR-code's error correction features help to recover contents of damaged codes. Subsequently, our appended digital signature allows for detecting malicious manipulations of the embedded data. Palaeomicrobiology meets forensic medicine: time as a fourth-dimension for the crime scene. The unrelenting progress of laboratory techniques is rapidly unleashing the huge potential of palaeomicrobiology.

That bodies are often found in poor condition is common to both palaeomicrobiology and forensic medicine, and this might stimulate them towards a joint quest to extract reproducible data for reliable specimens. Full Text Available The unrelenting progress of laboratory techniques is rapidly unleashing the huge potential of palaeomicrobiology. Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. Leading-edge forensic DNA analyses and the necessity of including crime scene investigators, police officers and technicians in a DNA elimination database.

In recent years, sophisticated technology has significantly increased the sensitivity and analytical power of genetic analyses so that very little starting material may now produce viable genetic profiles. This sensitivity however, has also increased the risk of detecting unknown genetic profiles assumed to be that of the perpetrator, yet originate from extraneous sources such as from crime scene workers.

These contaminants may mislead investigations, keeping criminal cases active and unresolved for long spans of time. Voluntary submission of DNA samples from crime scene workers is fairly low, therefore we have created a promotional method for our staff elimination database that has resulted in a significant increase in voluntary samples since Our database enforces privacy safeguards and allows for optional anonymity to all staff members. We also offer information sessions at various police precincts to advise crime scene workers of the importance and success of our staff elimination database.

By implementing our methods and respect for individual privacy, forensic laboratories everywhere may see similar growth and success in explaining unidentified genetic profiles in stagnate criminal cases. Safer communities: investigating the international response to knife crime. The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences Annual Conference Violent crime is a frequent occurrence in the UK, predominantly due to knives, with both urban and rural areas significantly impacted.

Personal casework experience of the author has involved the forensic laboratory examination of bladed weapons from including murder, sexual offences, armed robberies, aggravated burglaries, wildlife crime , cold case reviews and terrorism offences. The September Crime Survey of England The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism SWGFACT has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura Soil examination for a forensic trace evidence laboratory -Part 3: A proposed protocol for the effective triage and management of soil examinations.

In the past, forensic soil examination was a routine aspect of forensic trace evidence examinations. The apparent need for soil examinations then went through a period of decline and with it the capability of many forensic laboratories to carry out soil examinations. In more recent years, interest in soil examinations has been renewed due-at least in part-to soil examinations contributing to some high profile investigations. However, much of this renewed interest has been in organisations with a primary interest in soil and geology rather than forensic science.

We argue the need to reinstate soil examinations as a trace evidence sub-discipline within forensic science laboratories and present a pathway to support this aim. An examination procedure is proposed that includes: i appropriate sample collection and storage by qualified crime scene examiners; ii exclusionary soil examinations by trace evidence scientists within a forensic science laboratory ; iii inclusionary soil examinations by trace evidence scientists within a forensic science laboratory ; and iv higher-level examination of soils by specialist soil scientists and palynologists.

Soil examinations conducted by trace evidence scientists will be facilitated if the examinations are conducted using the instrumentation routinely used by these examiners. Hence, the proposed examination protocol incorporates instrumentation in routine use in a forensic trace evidence laboratory. Finally, we report on an Australian soil scene variability study and a blind trial that demonstrate the utility of the proposed protocol for the effective triage and management of soil samples by forensic laboratories.

Twenty years after the Second World War the public were made aware of War Crimes committed by the German forensic pathologist, Gerhart Panning Panning died of tuberculosis on 22 March After the Second World War, Panning's widow tried to obtain denazification for her husband. There were no particularly serious doubts. In , Konrad Graf von Moltke, the son of Helmuth James Graf von Moltke , presented to the court a private letter from his father to his mother.

In this letter, written in , Panning's experiments on Soviet prisoners are described. In the so-called Callsen trial in the court of Darmstadt from to , the experiments were confirmed by witnesses. In , Panning performed experiments in cooperation with the Sicherheitsstaffel Nazi special police in the Ukraine to prove that captured ammunition of the soviet infantry violated international law.

For this purpose, different parts of the bodies of living Soviets were used as firing targets. He published the results of these experiments in a scientific journal without any evidence of the origin of these observations. In this article, Panning's life and crimes have been described. The balanced scorecard: sustainable performance assessment for forensic laboratories.

The purpose of this article is to introduce the concept of the balanced scorecard into the laboratory management environment. The balanced scorecard is a performance measurement matrix designed to capture financial and non-financial metrics that provide insight into the critical success factors for an organization, effectively aligning organization strategy to key performance objectives. The scorecard helps organizational leaders by providing balance from two perspectives.

First, it ensures an appropriate mix of performance metrics from across the organization to achieve operational excellence; thereby the balanced scorecard ensures that no single or limited group of metrics dominates the assessment process, possibly leading to long-term inferior performance. Second, the balanced scorecard helps leaders offset short term performance pressures by giving recognition and weight to long-term laboratory needs that, if not properly addressed, might jeopardize future laboratory performance.

Full Text Available One of the cornerstones of the judicial process is the presentation of evidence in a court of law. The integrity of evidence is vital to reassure the courts that the correct procedures were followed throughout all the processes it was subjected to. The storage facility within the FSL should contribute to the prevention of evidence contamination or degradation thereby also leading to improved service quality and output to its customers.

The proper delivery of evidence can lead to the conviction of suspects and to the freedom of the innocent. This study investigates the storage facilities at the FSL to determine whether these are appropriate to ensure the integrity of evidence throughout all the processes it goes through and to recommend actions to continue to add value to the judicial system.

Application of plant DNA markers in forensic botany: genetic comparison of Quercus evidence leaves to crime scene trees using microsatellites. As highly polymorphic DNA markers become increasingly available for a wide range of plant and animal species, there will be increasing opportunities for applications to forensic investigations.

To date, however, relatively few studies have reported using DNA profiles of non-human species to place suspects at or near crime scenes. Here we describe an investigation of a double homicide of a female and her near-term fetus. Leaf material taken from a suspect's vehicle was identified to be that of sand live oak, Quercus geminata, the same tree species that occurred near a shallow grave where the victims were found. Quercus-specific DNA microsatellites were used to genotype both dried and fresh material from trees located near the burial site and from the material taken from the suspect's car.

Samples from the local population of Q. The cumulative average probability of identity for these four loci was 2. The DNA profiles of the dried leaves from the suspect's car did not match those of the trees near the crime scene. Although this investigation did not provide evidence that could be used against the suspect, it does demonstrate the potential for plant microsatellite markers providing physical evidence that links plant materials to live plants at or near crime scenes.

Forensic science information needs of patrol officers: The perceptions of the patrol officers, their supervisors and administrators, detectives, and crime scene technicians. Thanks to the rapid developments in science and technology in recent decades, especially in the past two decades, forensic sciences have been making invaluable contributions to criminal justice systems. With scientific evaluation of physical evidence, policing has become more effective in fighting crime and criminals. On the other hand, law enforcement personnel have made mistakes during the detection, protection, collection, and evaluation of physical evidence.

Law enforcement personnel, especially patrol officers, have been criticized for ignoring or overlooking physical evidence at crime scenes. This study, conducted in a large American police department, was aimed to determine the perceptions of patrol officers, their supervisors and administrators, detectives, and crime scene technicians about the forensic science needs of patrol officers.

The results showed no statistically significant difference among the perceptions of the said groups. More than half of the respondents perceived that 14 out of 16 areas of knowledge were important for patrol officers to have: crime scene documentation, evidence collection, interviewing techniques, firearm evidence, latent and fingerprint evidence, blood evidence, death investigation information, DNA evidence, document evidence, electronically recorded evidence, trace evidence, biological fluid evidence, arson and explosive evidence, and impression evidence.

Less than half of the respondents perceived forensic entomology and plant evidence as important for patrol officers. Polymers on the crime scene forensic analysis of polymeric trace evidence. This book approaches the analysis of forensic contact traces from a polymer science perspective. The development of characterization methods of new or unusual traces and the improvement of existing protocols is described.

The book starts with a general introduction to polymers and the issues related to transfer, persistence and recovery of polymeric traces. The chapters present a distinctive feature of polymers, discussing how it can be measured, what the practical difficulties which can be encountered in the analysis, and how useful that information is for comparison or identification purposes. Practical tips for the realization of the forensic analyses are included. This paper reports an experimental activity where students have to carefully analyze the evidence collected at the crime scene, namely fibers and lipstick traces.

The fibers are analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, solubility tests, and optical microscopy, while in turn the lipstick traces are investigated by thin layer chromatography. Students also…. Cognitive effort is an essential part of both forensic and clinical decision-making. Errors occur in both fields because the cognitive process is complex and prone to bias. We performed a selective review of full-text English language literature on cognitive bias leading to diagnostic and forensic errors.

Earlier work concentrated on classifying and raising bias awareness. Recently , the emphasis has shifted toward strategies for "debiasing. No single generally applicable and effective bias reduction strategy has emerged so far. Generalized attempts at bias elimination have not been particularly successful.

It is time to shift focus to the study of errors within specific domains, and how to best communicate uncertainty in order to improve decision making on the part of both the expert and the trier-of-fact. The Forensic Terrorist Detection System called Pinocchio Assessment Profile PAP employs standard issue polygraphs for a non-verbal picture technique originated as a biofeedback careers interest instrument.

The system can be integrated readily into airport screening protocols. See also Commission and Tips. Department of Labor sponsors and oversees the National Longitudinal Surveys project. Business school A training program that provides the trainee with business skills, not to be confused with business classes in college or graduate school. This type of program does not contribute to an undergraduate or professional degree. CHRR's roles include design, management, variable creation, documentation, dissemination, and user services. Certificate of deposit CD A certificate of deposit or a savings certificate is issued for a specific deposited amount at a fixed rate of interest for a given time period.

There is usually a required minimum deposit; the maturity period can vary from a few weeks to several years; there is a penalty for early withdrawal; and deposits are usually insured. This scale is designed to measure symptoms of depression in the general population. Check item Check-item questions are found in the survey questionnaire and are used during the course of the interview to identify the sample universe and denote the skip pattern for a particular set of questions. These questions are answered based on previous responses or direct observations, without asking the respondent.

The group was first surveyed in and has been reinterviewed biennially. Since , a separate survey has been administered to children age 15 and older, referred to as the Young Adults. Codeblock After a user extracts data from the NLS Investigator , they see a codeblock, which provides information about each variable presented in a consistent form. Most codeblocks provide users with the variable title, reference number, question number, survey year, coding information, and a frequency distribution. Codebook In the NLS Investigator software, the codebook contains complete information about all the variables in a data set.

It comprises a number of codeblocks presenting information about each variable. Cohort A cohort is a group of people who share similar characteristics at a particular point in time. Collateral Collateral includes property, goods, or other assets which must be pledged as part of a loan. If the borrower defaults on the loan, the lender has the right to "foreclose on" take the collateral. A college or university offers candidates an associate's, bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degree in a specific academic concentration.

Commission A commission is an amount or percentage of money that is given in addition to one's regular salary. In some jobs, usually sales, the base pay may be quite low, with most of a person's earnings in the form of commissions. See also Bonus and Tips. Community or junior college These colleges provide courses that may result in a 2-year or associate's degree; these courses are considered regular school. If the courses are taken to improve job skills and do not count toward an academic degree, these courses are considered training rather than regular schooling.

Computer-assisted personal interview CAPI These interviews are administered using a survey instrument on a laptop computer. Created variables Created variables, part of the NLS data variables available in the NLS Investigator , summarize complex series of respondent questions into one measure, such as hourly wage for employer 1 in The components for the created variable may be based on information provided by the respondents or obtained from other outside sources.

They are created by survey staff after the interview. Current Population Survey CPS Conducted by the Census Bureau, the CPS is a series of monthly interviews that collects up-to-date information about the number of persons in the country who are employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force in a specific survey week.

Labor force status questions included in select rounds of the NLSY79 and NLSY97 were the same as the CPS questions used to determine employment status and were administered as closely as possible to the method used by the Census Bureau so that findings are comparable. Because an NLSY respondent may not be able to interview each survey year, many questions are designed to pick up information all the back to the respondent's previous interview. Delayed Entry Program DEP A program that allows a person to enlist in the military and then report for active duty at a later time as many as days later.

DEP enlistees do not always report for active duty and can be guaranteed, in writing, the type of training and the location that they want. Dictionary of Occupational Titles DOT This occupational directory was developed by the Department of Labor as a comprehensive classification system for occupations. It was used to code NLSY79 respondents' current occupation only. The individual occupations are identified by the 9-digit DOT codes. Dividends Dividend payments, usually in the form of money or stock, are paid to shareholders of a corporation or some other cooperative society or membership club.

The dividend amount is decided by the board of directors and is usually paid on a quarterly basis. Dividends must be declared as income in the year they are received. DK A codebook abbreviation for the "Don't Know" answer a respondent may give. This numeric coding scheme standardizes the occupational coding across all branches of the military. Duncan Index An ordinal measure of socioeconomic status that assigns a two-digit prestige score to the Census occupation codes. The index scores are based on education and income distribution ratings and range from 0 to See Otis Dudley Duncan.

Dwelling Unit DU A single room, or group of rooms, that is intended for separate living quarters. To be considered a separate dwelling unit, it must have either a separate entrance or complete kitchen facilities stove, sink with piped water, and refrigerator for the sole use of the household. It is comparable to VEAP. Employee-type job An employee-type job is one in which an individual is working as an employee; that is, he or she has an on-going relationship with a particular employer.

See also Freelance Job. One supplement is completed for each employer a respondent has had since the date of the last interview. The interview incorporated five columns in Section 10 of the survey instrument; each column is equivalent to one Employer Supplement.

In the NLSY97, the distinction between the employer section and an employer supplement is not made. It provides a standardized employment status code for each member of the sample. Enumeration Districts Enumeration districts ED are areas used in the geographic control of enumeration activities by the Census Bureau. An ED is the territory assigned to a single enumerator to cover during a census count. The codes for the respondent's current residence at each interview date are then matched with the , , , , and City and County Data Books depending on survey year to obtain characteristics of the county such as population size, crime statistics, and industrial diversification.

These data are available on the Geocode CD to approved researchers. Estate The assets, debts, and property left by someone at the time of his or her death. Life insurance proceeds are generally added to the estate.

Even Start Federally funded program that provides families with early childhood education for their young children, adult education for parents, and parenting education and support. These variables, available to the public in the NLS Investigator , generally give the status such as employed, participating in a government program, enrolled, married of the respondent for each time unit from a specific date usually the 14th birth year to the latest interview date.

Expelled Expulsion occurs when a student is permanently prohibited from attending a learning institution, usually due to misconduct or breaking the school's rules. See also Suspended. Freelance job A type of employment where the individual does not have long-term commitments to any one employer. The individual can act independently without regard or deference to authority.

The freelancer may work on one or more tasks for several people and does not have a "boss" for example, baby-sitting or mowing lawns , or the freelancer may work for himself or herself for example, running a business. See also Employee-type job. Futures contract A purchase of the right to buy or sell commodities, such as wheat, corn, and cocoa, at a specific point in the future. These contracts are traded on futures exchanges like the Chicago Board of Trade. Not included in survey help screens; listed here for user reference.

The test provides a valid means of measuring the educational proficiency of individuals taking the test in comparison with high school graduates. Also known as a general equivalency diploma. They can be used to match NLS data with other data e. To preserve respondent confidentiality, geocode data are available only to researchers who satisfactorily complete a BLS accessing agreement.

Respondents are classified according to the following definitions:. Government training Training sponsored by the government for the general public e. Note that training sponsored by the government for its employees e. Gross Income Gross income for all nonfarm businesses and professions is defined as all monies received from the sale of goods or for services rendered, as well as the amount of net inventory increase.

It does not include proceeds from the sale of capital items such as land, buildings, and machinery. For farms, it is defined as all monies received from the sale of farm products, government subsidies on crops and soil conservation, and income from rental of equipment. It does not include the value of any farm products such as food and fuel used by the family or proceeds from the sale of land, buildings, or machinery.

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Head Start Head Start is a federally funded program that provides comprehensive developmental services for disadvantaged, low-income children from birth until they reach school age. Home equity loan Any loan which uses the collateral of a person's home and which has a fixed number of payments and a fixed amount borrowed. Household Income Update This one-page paper instrument, administered to a parent of those NLSY97 respondents still living at home, collected information in rounds about the income of the parent and his or her spouse or partner.

Household unit A single room, or group of rooms, that is intended as separate living quarters for a family, a group of unrelated persons living together, or for a person living alone. Approximately 75, households were screened to identify eligible respondents based on age, sex, ethnicity, and poverty status.

A similar screener was administered to households prior to the start of the NLSY97 to locate eligible respondents for the main survey. Incentive pay In some jobs, employees receive extra money or other compensation for reaching or exceeding certain levels of performance, such as meeting established sales quotas in a given month or year. Individual Quarters IQ A term used to describe nondwelling unit, noninstitutional living quarters. The earnings are tax deferred until drawn upon. Government Printing Office, ; www.

The system consists of industry categories arranged into 12 major groups.

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The Census classification system is used to code industry information from the surveys; industries of a respondent's most recent job identified during the NLSY79 surveys are doublecoded with the and Census codes. Beginning with the NLSY79 survey all occupations and industries were coded with codes only. Info sheet items include date of birth, marital status, date of last interview, and so forth.

In PAPI surveys, the interviewers referred to the information sheet during the course of the interview in order to ascertain possible updates. The automated CAPI instruments access it automatically to drive the survey. Inheritance Money or property that is legally transmissible to an heir is considered inheritance. Check Interviewer check questions are used during the course of the interview to check the sample universe and denote the skip pattern for a particular set of questions. The interviewer codes the question based on previous responses or direct observation, without asking the respondent.

Interest on Savings and U. Savings Bonds Includes interest accrued from savings accounts even if the money has been withdrawn. I am making the assumption that your wife is working in the forensic investigation field. As would any papers she may have published, texts she may have contributed to or classes that she may have taught. Fire investigation related items garner more points, but the valuable experience your wife would bring to the table is definitely counted towards an IAAI certification.

Has she testified in court as an expert witness? Chances are that those testimonies would also count towards her certification. A major challenge, as I see it, is getting some relevant experience and training. First thing, she should join the IAAI as well as your local state chapter www. This will give her exposure to the field and help her to establish contacts. I have always found that the best job opportunities come from networking.

Joining NAFI is not a bad idea either. Second, she needs to get some fire investigation training. The best place she can go for that and free is www. This is a site sponsored by the IAAI that provides tested training in fire investigation.

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  4. At the present time there are approximately 16 modules up and running. While this certainly is not a complete training program, it will provide her with a foundation on which she can build. I must warn you, however, that there is a stunningly handsome man featured in the Fire Scene Documentation module that she may fall in love with. Proceed with caution. Can she parlay some of her education into an engineering degree? Fire Protection Engineering is the obvious choice.

    However, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, physical engineers all have a seat at the table in the fire investigation. The major stumbling block is fire investigation experience. She may have to get creative. Is there a fire investigation task force near where you live? She may be able to volunteer her time to assist.

    She certainly has something to offer. Perhaps there is a local fire investigation company can use her as an intern or an evidence tech or in some other capacity. She needs to think outside the box. If she can overcome this hurdle, she is in.

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    The job opportunities that will probably come her way are in the private sector. The larger companies offer a wider array of services that might make it easier for her to make her square peg fit into their hole. Do not give up on this. The fire investigation field needs more people with solid forensic science backgrounds.


    Good luck and let me know how you make out. Originally posted by cubbie View Post. George what is your issue with my posting? Can you please explain? I always strife to improve myself. George One: If there are companies willing to hire fire investigators without certification or field experience? Can you tell me who they are? Two: If there aren't private labs that process fire scene evidence. Who are all those people that advertise in IAAI magazine? I always send my evidence to a private lab in Lawrenceville GA.

    They only require that you have knowledge of NFPA I found it to be a very easy test. I know that there are paralegals that are CFEI's that have never worked a fire scene.

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    They have a very poor vetting process in accepting applications for testing. I believe that you miss understood what I wrote if you thought I alluded to a requirement that you must have fire suppression experience to qualify. It is not required at all. IAAI works on a detailed minimum point system to be able to apply for testing. You must have 40 of the points in fire investigative experience.

    Full time fire investigator must be working more than hours a year. You obtain 10 points for each year of work experience. Part-time fire investigator must be working less than hours a year but work at less 12 fires per year. You obtain 8 points for each year of work experience. I explained that IAAI has 6 or 7 publications that are used to generate their certification test. However CFI Training courses are an excellent place to get training. I think we both need to remember that the question we were asked to answer was for someone who has no fire experience.

    So exploring all her options such as private labs or federal government is sound advice.